Haiti, a name that means "mountainous country," is derived from the language of the Taino Indians who inhabited the island before European colonization. After independence inthe name was adopted by the military generals, many of them former slaves, who expelled the French and took possession of the colony then known as Saint Domingue.
Located more than a thousand miles southeast of Miami, Puerto Rico is bounded on the north by the Atlantic Ocean, on the east by the Who were the tainos essay Passage which separates it from the Virgin Islandson the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west by the Mona Passage which separates it from the Dominican Republic.
Puerto Rico is 35 miles wide from north to south95 miles long from east to west and has miles of coastline. Its land mass measures 3, square miles—about two-thirds the area of the state of Connecticut.
Although it is considered to be part of the Torrid Zone, the climate of Puerto Rico is more temperate than tropical. The average January temperature on the island is 73 degrees, while the average July temperature is 79 degrees. According to the U. Census Bureau report, the island of Puerto Rico has a population of 3, This represents a three-fold increase since —andof those new births occurred between the years of and alone.
Most Puerto Ricans are of Spanish ancestry. Approximately 70 percent of the population is white and about 30 percent is of African or mixed descent. As in many Latin American cultures, Roman Catholicism is the dominant religion, but Protestant faiths of various denominations have some Puerto Rican adherents as well.
Puerto Rico is unique in that it is an autonomous Commonwealth of the United States, and its people think of the island as un estado libre asociado, or a "free associate state" of the United States—a closer relationship than the territorial possessions of Guam and the Virgin Islands have to America.
Puerto Ricans have their own constitution and elect their own bicameral legislature and governor but are subject to U. The island is represented in the U.
S House of Representatives by a resident commissioner, which for many years was a nonvoting position. After the U. Historically, the main conflict has been between the nationalists, who support full Puerto Rican independence, and the statists, who advocate U.
In November of an island-wide referendum was held on the issue of statehood versus continued Commonwealth status. In a narrow vote of 48 percent to 46 percent, Puerto Ricans opted to remain a Commonwealth. A peaceful agricultural people, the Arawaks on the island of Puerto Rico were enslaved and virtually exterminated at the hands of their Spanish colonizers.
Although Spanish heritage has been a matter of pride among islander and mainlander Puerto Ricans for hundreds of years—Columbus Day is a traditional Puerto Rican holiday—recent historical revisions have placed the conquistadors in a darker light.
Like many Latin American cultures, Puerto Ricans, especially younger generations living in the mainland United States, have become increasingly interested in their indigenous as well as their European ancestry.
Because of its location, Puerto Rico was a popular target of pirates and privateers during its early colonial period. For protection, the Spanish constructed forts along the shoreline, one of which, El Morro in Old San Juan, still survives.
These fortifications also proved effective in repelling the attacks of other European imperial powers, including a assault from British general Sir Francis Drake. In the mids, African slaves were brought to Puerto Rico by the Spanish in great numbers.
Slaves and native Puerto Ricans mounted rebellions against Spain throughout the early and mids. The Spanish were successful, however, in resisting these rebellions.Tainos feared to eat certain foods like; Mammy Apples which they believed were food for the souls of the dead.
We will write a custom essay sample on Who were . Christopher Columbus - American Indian Genocide: Christopher Columbus, under Queen Isabella of Spain, initiates the European invasion and rape of the Americas.
In this open letter to doubters of the Latter-day Saint faith, the well-known author Terryl Givens does not attempt direction to resolve uncertainties and perplexities, but attempts to endow them with the dignity and seriousness they deserve--and even to celebrate them.
Specific topics include the prophetic mantle, the nature of restoration, Mormon exclusivity, the inefficacy of institutional. In this open letter to doubters of the Latter-day Saint faith, the well-known author Terryl Givens does not attempt direction to resolve uncertainties and.
Boricuas: Influential Puerto Rican Writings - An Anthology [Roberto Santiago] on benjaminpohle.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. MANY CULTURES * ONE WORLD "Boricua is what Puerto Ricans call one another as a term of endearment, respect. Puerto Rican Americans - History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves Pa-Sp.