Scholarly paperCollege paperScience vs. Life began with a few infinitely basic organisms that gradually evolved through genetic mutation into more complex beings until life as we know it was formed. Through the process of natural selection, those creatures with modifications granting them a functional advantage in their habitat survived and reproduced while less capable members of the ecosystem went extinct. As a result, those species which best adapted to their particular environment survived.
A Mechanistic Universe Scientific Thought: In Context Astronomy and Cosmology: A Mechanistic Universe Introduction At the dawn of the eighteenth century the theologies of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam argued the existence of an unchanging, immutable God who ruled a static universe.
For most theologians, Newtonian physics and the general shift toward a mechanistic explanation of the natural world initially offered not a threat, but the promise of a deeper understanding of the inner workings of a cosmos linked directly to the very mind and nature of God.
During the course of the eighteenth century, however, a major conceptual rift developed between science and theology as growing scientific disregard for knowledge based upon divine revelation—and increasing reliance upon natural theology the belief that God can be known solely through human reason and experience, without divine revelation or scripture —made experimentation the determinant authority in science.
This marked a critical period in the development of scientific thought. Over the course of the century, advances in astronomy led to greater understanding of the workings of the solar systemsending sweeping changes across the theological, political, and social landscapes.
An important consequence of these advancements allowed astronomers and mathematicians to calculate and describe the real and apparent motions of astronomical bodies celestial mechanics as well as to propose the dynamics related to the formation of the solar system.
The refined analysis of celestial mechanics carried profound theological and philosophical ramifications in the Age of Enlightenment. Mathematicians and scientists, particularly those associated with French schools of mathematics, argued that if the small perturbations and anomalies in celestial motions could be completely explained by an improved understanding of celestial mechanics, i.
Within his lifetime Newton saw the rise and triumph of Newtonian physics and widespread acceptance of a mechanistic universe one that operates with mathematical precision and predictable phenomena among philosophers and scientists.
He rejected mainstream concepts of Christianity, but found God manifest in the order and beauty of the universe. Theologians grew increasingly uneasy with the moral implications of scientific theories that explained physics and the universe as the inevitable consequence of mechanical principles.
Ironically, it was this theological effort that led many scientists to insist on an uncompromising objectivity that largely discounted subjective religious beliefs.
This natural theology clashed with traditional Judeo-Christian beliefs. The movement gained support within scientific communities as increasingly detailed evidence regarding the scope and scale of the universe showed no direct evidence of an active Creator. There were, however, notable attempts to heal the growing schism and reestablish religious truths in accord with and based upon scientific fact and reasoning.
Rather than reject science as counter to divine relation, some theologians argued that scientific astronomical evidence actually proved the existence of God, even if advocates of natural philosophy the reasoned and objective study of nature that preceded the development of the scientific method did not.
Scientific and Cultural Preconceptions Not all theological reactions against the rise of natural philosophy and deism were, however, so accommodating.
The English Anglican bishop George Berkeley — asserted a more radical defense against mechanistic reductionism, claiming that there was no proof that matter truly exists, and that human perceptions of matter were shaped by God.
Ten years later, inEnglish microscopist Nehemiah Grew — set forth arguments for the existence of God from a set of natural proofs in his work Cosmologia sacra Sacred cosmology.
In Derham published Physico-Theology: Or a Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God from His Works of Creation, a book in which he argued that careful study and observation of the natural world could prove the attributes and existence of God.
Two years later he wrote Astro-Theology: Or a Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God, from a Survey of the Heavens, in which he made similar arguments based on celestial observations. Unfortunately, Derham also published lists of nebulous astronomical objects in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Societymany of which were later discovered to be false claims designed to advance the scale and grandeur of the universe in support of the concept of God as infinite in scope and majesty.
Among astronomers in particular, however, evidence that challenged conventional religious teachings began to accumulate. In Edmond Halley —argued that what were thought to be three separate comets were actually the same body.
According to Berkeley, the perceived physical world was actually a manifestation of a human mind under the direct control of God; in other words, people live in a God-controlled hallucination.
Moreover, the world was simply a set of illusions impressed upon the human mind by divine will. This premise, however, was neatly refuted by author and critic Samuel Johnson —a fellow of the Royal Society and contemporary of Newton.
Their observations and data were of paramount importance for safe navigation and the all-important growth of trade. They also lent credibility to broader interpretations of the nature of the cosmos—and allowed natural philosophy and rationalism to grow in the public mind.
This practical emphasis, in turn, fueled the rise of empiricism the testing of theory by experiment or observation. In addition to being an accomplished musician, Herschel also built the largest and most powerful telescopes of his day, enabling him to view previously unseen stars and nebulae.
His discoveries were used on both sides of the argument over the existence and nature of God. As estimates of the size of the universe grew, they became, for some, an important argument for the existence of an infinite, all-powerful, God.
During the last quarter of the eighteenth century the assertion of divine intervention to correct the anomalies associated with the predicted orbits of the plants became philosophically unacceptable. French mathematician and scientist Laplace, asserted that celestial motions could be fully explained without any reliance on the supernatural.The current treatment of young-age creationists in the scientific community and society at large is unfair and unwise.
Scientists and philosophers of science, including old-age creationists and naturalists, should respect young-age creationists as legitimate contributors to science.
Argues that scientists and educators need to understand the beliefs and aims of creationists, and gives advice on what actions they can take to combat creationism.
Defender's Guide to Science and Creationism () (Off Site) by Mark I. Vuletic. Astronomy and Cosmology: A Mechanistic Universe Introduction.
At the dawn of the eighteenth century the theologies of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam argued the existence of an unchanging, immutable God who ruled a static universe. - Some Creationists and Darwinists have the debate regarding dinosaurs and theories about their existence, their demise and how humans may or may not have coexisted.
Creationists believe in the theory of divine creation as told in the book of Genesis. Trilobites were fascinating invertebrates that inhabited pre-Flood ocean bottoms.
They were fossilized when “primitive” life supposedly was just getting started, . Medicine was seen as primarily concerned with extending lives, curing diseases, healing injuries, palliating symptoms, birthing babies, and promoting wellness—and hence, as a sphere in which people of all political and social beliefs were generally able to get along.