It is the era in which the great cathedrals of Europe were built and the Catholic Church started its universities in Paris, Tubingen, Cambridge and Oxford. The laws of the land and leading roles in the government were all in the hands of the leading church leaders like bishops and archbishops. It was an era when the vested powers in the hands of the Pope were so great that he could even excommunicate a king for a misdeed.
History of Roman Catholicism The emergence of Catholic Christianity At least in an inchoate form, all the elements of catholicity—doctrine, authority, universality—are evident in the New Testament.
It has also moved beyond the geographic borders of Judaismas the dramatic sentence of the closing chapter announces: It is clear even from the New Testament that these catholic features were proclaimed in response to internal challenges as well as external ones; indeed, scholars have concluded that the early church was far more pluralistic from the very beginning than the somewhat idealized portrayal in the New Testament might suggest.
As such challenges continued in the 2nd and 3rd centuries, further development of catholic teaching became necessary. The schema of apostolic authority formulated by the bishop of Lyon, Irenaeus c. Each of the three sources depended on the other two for validation; thus, one could determine which purportedly scriptural writings were genuinely apostolic by appealing to their conformity with acknowledged apostolic tradition and to the usage of the apostolic churches, and so on.
This was not a circular argument but an appeal to a single catholic authority of apostolicity, in which the three elements were inseparable. The emergence of Roman Catholicism Internal factors Several historical factors, which vary in importance depending on the time, help to account for the emergence of Roman Catholicism.
The two factors that are often regarded as most decisive—at any rate by the champions of the primacy of Rome in the church—are the primacy of Peter among the Twelve Apostles of Christ and the identification of Peter with the church of Rome.
Although there are considerable variations in the enumerations of the Apostles in the New Testament Matthew In perhaps the most important passage, at least as it was later understood, Jesus said to Peter, And so I say to you, you are Peter, and upon this rock [Greek petra] I will build my church, and the gates of the netherworld shall not prevail against it.
I will give you the keys to the kingdom of heaven.
Whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. The identification of this obvious primacy of Peter in the New Testament with the primacy of the church of Rome is not self-evident.
For one thing, the New Testament is almost silent about a connection between Peter and Rome. It is, moreover, the unanimous testimony of early Christian tradition that Peter, having been at Jerusalem and then at Antioch, finally came to Rome, where he was crucified with his head down, according to Christian tradition, in deference to the Crucifixion of Christ ; there was and still is, however, disagreement about the exact location of his grave.
Writing at about the end of the 2nd century, the North African theologian Tertullian c. How happy is its church, on which apostles poured forth all their doctrine along with their blood!
Indeed, Rome could claim affiliation with two apostles, Peter and Paul, as well as numerous other martyrs for the faith. In addition to this apostolic argument for Roman primacy—and often interwoven with it—was the argument that Rome should be honoured because of its position as the capital of the Roman Empire: The second and fourth ecumenical councils of the church at Constantinople in and at Chalcedon in both legislated such a position for the see of Constantinople, but Rome refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of that prerogative.
During the first six centuries of the church, the bishop of every major Christian centre was, at one time or another, charged with and convicted of heresy—except the bishop of Rome though his turn would come.
The titles that the see of Rome gradually assumed and the claims of primacy that it made within the life and governance of the church were, in many ways, little more than the formalization of what had become widely accepted practice.
External factors In addition to various internal developments, at least two external factors contributed decisively at the beginning of the Middle Ages to the development of Roman Catholicism as a distinct form of Christianity.
One was the rise of Islam in the 7th century. The other external force that encouraged the emergence of Roman Catholicism as a distinct entity was the collapse of governmental and administrative structures in the Western Roman Empire in and the migration into Europe of Germanic and other tribes that eventually established themselves as ruling elites.
Some of these peoples, particularly the Goths, had already become Christian before their arrival in western Europe. The form of Christianity they had adopted in the 4th century, generally known as Arianismwas, according to the ecumenical Council of Nicaeaheretical in its doctrine of the Trinity.Religion in the Middle Ages was dominated by Christianity.
It is the era in which the great cathedrals of Europe were built and the Catholic Church started its universities in Paris, Tubingen, Cambridge and Oxford. During the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church was the only church in Europe. The study of religion emerged as a formal discipline during the 19th century, when the methods and approaches of history, philology, literary criticism, psychology, anthropology, sociology, economics, and other fields were brought to bear on the task of determining the history, origins, and functions of religion.
Renaissance architecture demonstrated a revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. The Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts.
Get beyond the abstract dates and figures, kings and queens, and battles and wars that make up so many historical accounts in The Other Side of History: Daily Life in the Ancient World. These are symbols of authority associated with ancient Egyptian pharaohs, and the god Osiris, which suggests that an ancient Egyptian style of social structure, and perhaps religion, existed in the area of modern Nigeria during the late Pharonic period.
Byzantine Empire, the eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived for a thousand years after the western half had crumbled into various feudal kingdoms and which finally fell to Ottoman Turkish onslaughts in