Locations of tree-ring samples in the 1, Jemez Mountains regional fire scar chronology. Discussion Comparing our LiDAR-based population estimates and tree-ring data to the 17th century documentary records produced by colonial Spaniards reveals the tempo of depopulation in the Jemez Province Fig.
In other words, the preponderance of historical and archaeological evidence indicates that no large-scale demographic collapse occurred before the first direct contacts between the Jemez and Europeans pre or during the period of early Spanish exploration, before the establishment of permanent colonial settlements — Following the expansion of missionary efforts in the s, Spanish colonial records register a large-scale diminution of the Jemez population over the subsequent 20 y Table 1.
Half the populace reportedly succumbed to two waves of epidemic diseases, violence, and famine byleaving just 3, remaining in the Province The number of Jemez residents further dropped to just 1, persons byaccording to colonial records At the same time, tree rings record the recruitment of ponderosa pines at large Jemez villages during this period.
Dendrochronology provides a source of data independent of Spanish colonial records to objectively assess the timing of depopulation. Tree establishment dates indicate termini ante quem in the s—s for these sites.
We are confident that these dates represent the cessation of occupation and not the limits of dendrochronology in the region because trees sampled from other locales in the Jemez Province regularly show evidence of establishment dates in the early s, with occasional dates as early as If terminal occupations of these sites occurred earlier or later thanwe would expect corresponding evidence for tree recruitment Methods.
The recruitment of ponderosa pine stands after the depopulation of large Jemez villages coincided with a shift in fire regimes and an increase in the number and synchrony of spreading surface fires between and Despite the increase in frequency of extensive fires following the 17th century demographic collapse, the recovering forest would have sequestered more carbon than the more open anthropogenic landscape Furthermore, the establishment of more regular extensive fires would have promoted the recruitment and maintenance of large diameter trees in higher densities than under the previous, anthropogenically formed regime.
Bythe resident population of the Jemez Province had gathered en masse at the village of Patokwa LA 96 According to our LiDAR-based architectural estimates, Patokwa housed a maximum population of persons in the early s.
Again, this archaeologically derived estimate accords well with historical documentation. Spanish military journals record that, inafter more than a decade of drought, migration, and violent conflict, the resident population of the Jemez Province stood at less than persons Implications Archaeological, historical, and dendrochronological data from the Jemez Province combine to paint a picture of demographic stability at large Pueblo villages between andwith drastic declines in the subsequent six decades.
This finding supports the third of our working hypotheses, the mission hypothesis, and refutes the Dobyns, contact, and null hypotheses.
Widespread depopulation at large village sites began between andfollowing the establishment of Franciscan missions in the region Fig. Historical records suggest that a deadly combination of pestilence, warfare, and famine initiated the depopulation of large Jemez villages 50 Evidence for large-scale depopulation concomitant with the establishment of missions can also be found in other regions of the Southwest United States.
Ubelaker estimates that the steepest population declines occurred in the 17th century, only after the establishment of permanent colonial and missionary settlements among the Pueblos.
To evaluate the Early Anthropocene burning hypothesis, scholars need accurate assessments of the timing, magnitude, and effects of post-Columbian indigenous depopulation at regional scales throughout North and South America.
Archaeological evidence from the Jemez Province supports the notion that the European colonization of the Americas unleashed forces that ultimately destroyed a staggering number of human lives. However, unlike in the Neotropics and the Eastern United States, where fires decreased afterlandscape-scale fire events in the Southwest United States increased substantially following European colonization.
These changes in population and fire regimes in the Southwest United States occurred nearly a century later than the Amazonian cases frequently posited in support of the Early Anthropocene burning hypothesis.
Nevertheless, the net effect of population decline and ponderosa pine reforestation in the Jemez Province was one of carbon sequestration.
Similar processes may have occurred in other pine-dominant landscapes across the Western United States. In combination, their reforestation could have amplified the drop in global CO2 recorded in Antarctic ice core records 161819 Fig.
However, reliably extrapolating data from the Western United States to global scales requires further investigation of the extent of human occupation and forest modification in those other locales.
This study demonstrates that the timing of initial post-Columbian depopulation events in the Southwest United States were not coterminous with initial episodes in the Andes, central and southern Amazonia, Central Mexico, or the Caribbean. Within North America, the data from the Jemez Province add to a growing body of archaeological evidence attesting to the variegated nature of post-Columbian indigenous population decline.
The timing and severity of depopulation events varied across the continent. As a result, we caution against expanding data from any single region to continental, hemispheric, or global scales in support of the Early Anthropocene burning hypothesis.
Our study presents further evidence that simplistic assumptions about human—fire relationships should be discarded Although sample depth is limited for the pre-mission period occupation of the Jemez Province ca.David S. Jones) Issue #2 Karen Lee @ History Professor Seiling M/W A.M.
March 4, Was disease a key factor in the depopulation of Native Americans in the Americas? In “Taking Sides,” issue 2, Colin G. Calloway argues that key factor of the depopulation was through the epidemic diseases contact from Europeans.
New World devastation “In the Southwest, first contact between native people and Europeans occurred in ,” said Matthew Liebmann, the John and Ruth Hazel Associate Professor of the Social Sciences in the Department of Anthropology. Oct 27, · In relation to the depopulation of the native Americans, I would have to say that the primary reason for their depopulation was the expansion of the Western European culture and civilization.
This led to the contributing factors which were outlined in the above posts. Native American depopulation, reforestation, and fire regimes in the Southwest United States, – CE. Native Americans Dominique Ace-Alija SOC – Racial and Ethnic Groups Instructor Chappelle September 3, Native Americans "Except for Native Americans, everyone else is an immigrant"- Vickie Whitewolf.
These are very powerful words. Native American populations declined between and CE, instigated by the European colonization of the Americas.
However, the magnitude, tempo, and ecological effects of this depopulation remain the source of enduring debates.