Financial institutions, in turn, have become heavily reliant on the output of such complex mathematical and technological processes. As a result, new regulations are requiring a more formalized and independent validation of the models used at all levels of these institutions. The task of validating the models may be performed internally by a group independent of the original developers or by an external independent third party. Flaws and misapplication of the advanced models present great risks, hence robust model validation and audits are necessary to mitigate financial model risk.
As of the census, the town had a population of 61, The largest town on Connecticuts Gold Coast, it is home to many hedge funds, Greenwich is the southernmost and westernmost municipality in Connecticut as well as the six-state region of New England.
The town is named after Greenwich, a borough of London in the United Kingdom, the town of Greenwich was settled in Although British forces pillaged the town, Putnam was able to warn Stamford, px InGullivers Restaurant and Bar, on the border of Greenwich and Port Chester, inthe Mianus River Bridge, which carries traffic on Interstate 95 over an estuary, collapsed, resulting in the death of three people.
For many years, Greenwich Point, was only to town residents. However, a lawyer sued, saying his rights to freedom of assembly were threatened because he was not allowed to go there, the lower courts disagreed, but the Supreme Court of Connecticut agreed, and Greenwich was forced to amend its beach access policy to all four beaches.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of In terms of area, Greenwich is twice the size of Manhattan. The town is bordered to the west and north by Westchester County, New York, to the east by the city of Stamford, and faces the Village of Bayville to the south across the Long Island Sound.
Additionally, Greenwich is often divided into several smaller, unofficial neighborhoods. The Hispanic population is concentrated in the corner of the town.
Natural gas — It is formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the surface of the Earth over millions of years.
The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of bonds in the gas. Natural gas is a fuel used as a source of energy for heating, cooking.
It is also used as fuel for vehicles and as a feedstock in the manufacture of plastics. Natural gas is found in underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds.
Petroleum is another resource and fossil fuel found in proximity to. Most natural gas was created over time by two mechanisms, biogenic and thermogenic, biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, landfills, and shallow sediments.
Deeper in the earth, at temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material.
In petroleum production gas is burnt as flare gas. The World Bank estimates that over cubic kilometers of gas are flared or vented annually.
Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, most, Natural gas is often informally referred to simply as gas, especially when compared to other energy sources such as oil or coal. They discovered a way to transport gas seeping from the ground in crude pipelines of bamboo to where it was used to salt water to extract the salt.
The worlds first industrial extraction of gas started at Fredonia, New York. If there was not a market for natural gas near the wellhead it was expensive to pipe to the end user. In the 19th century and early 20th century, unwanted gas was burned off at oil fields 3.
Hurricane Katrina — Hurricane Katrina was the costliest natural disaster and one of the five deadliest hurricanes in the history of the United States. The storm is ranked as the third most intense United States landfalling tropical cyclone.
Early the following day, the new depression intensified into Tropical Storm Katrina, the cyclone headed generally westward toward Florida and strengthened into a hurricane only two hours before making landfall at Hallandale Beach and Aventura on August After very briefly weakening to a storm, Katrina emerged into the Gulf of Mexico on August The storm caused severe destruction along the Gulf coast from central Florida to Texas, much of it due to the storm surge, severe property damage occurred in coastal areas, such as Mississippi beachfront towns, over 90 percent of these were flooded.
Boats and casino barges rammed buildings, pushing cars and houses inland, over fifty breaches in New Orleanss hurricane surge protection were the cause of the majority of the death and destruction during Katrina on August 29, Army Corps of Engineers, two-thirds of the deaths in Greater New Orleans were due to levee and floodwall failure.
All of the studies concluded that the USACE, the designers and builders of the levee system as mandated by the Flood Control Act ofis responsible. This is mainly due to a decision to use shorter steel sheet pilings in an effort to save money, exactly ten years after Katrina, J. They provided accurate hurricane weather tracking forecasts with sufficient lead time, Hurricane Katrina formed as Tropical Depression Twelve over the southeastern Bahamas on August 23, as the result of an interaction of a tropical wave and the remains of Tropical Depression Ten.
It strengthened into Tropical Storm Katrina on the morning of August 24, the tropical storm moved towards Florida, and became a hurricane only two hours before making landfall between Hallandale Beach and Aventura on the morning of August The storm weakened over land, but it regained hurricane status about one hour after entering the Gulf of Mexico, on August 27, the storm reached Category 3 intensity on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale, becoming the third major hurricane of the season.
An eyewall replacement cycle disrupted the intensification, but caused the storm to nearly double in size, the storm rapidly intensified after entering the Gulf, growing from a Category 3 hurricane to a Category 5 hurricane in just nine hours.
This rapid growth was due to the movement over the unusually warm waters of the Loop Current.Flaws and misapplication of the advanced models present great risks, hence robust model validation and audits are necessary to mitigate financial model risk. There have been several high-profile cases of model failures that contributed to significant losses at financial institutions, requiring the regulators to step in (Long-Term Capital Management, Enron, Amaranth Advisors, and JPMorgan’s London Whale).
Amaranth’s misfortunes were solely a result of poor risk management. Also, even though the firm lost over $6 billion in a matter of days, the losses had minimal impact in the industry as a whole. Nowhere is George Santayana's famous admonition more applicable than in the field of risk.
About. About This Site; About Glyn Holton; Contact; Coaching. How it Works I maintain an informal list of prominent risk management failures.
I just updated the list and thought I would share it with you. Amaranth Advisors hedge fund failure ( In September , the activities of Amaranth Advisors, a large-sized Connecticut hedge fund sent menacing ripples through the natural gas market.
By September 21, , Amaranth had lost roughly $ billion over a 3-week period or one half of its assets primarily due to its activities in natural gas futures and options in September.
Governance considerations in an operational due diligence context. Analyzing considerations related to the concept of hedge fund governance have increasingly been considered by investors during the context of operational due diligence reviews.
Risk Governance Amaranth Advisors G Essay Risk Governance - Group C Amaranth Advisors Q1. How significant were Amaranth´s positions in relation to the market?