By Catharine Paddock PhD Did you know that taking antibiotics when you or your child has a virus may do more harm than good? According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, where children are concerned, antibiotics are the most common cause of emergency department visits for adverse drug events.
The overuse of antimicrobials in food animal production is an under-appreciated problem. In both human and veterinary medicine, the risk of developing resistance rises each time bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials.
Resistance opens the door to treatment failure for even the most common pathogens and leads to an increasing number of infections. The mounting evidence of the relationship between antimicrobial use in animal husbandry and the increase in bacterial resistance in humans has prompted several reviews of agricultural practices by scientific authorities in a number of countries, including the US.
Overview of the Relationship Between Antimicrobial Use in Food Animal Production and Antibiotic Resistance Exposure to antimicrobials fundamentally alters microbial ecosystems of humans, animals and the environment, which may lead to the development of antimicrobial resistance.
Increasing antimicrobial resistance limits treatment options, raises health care costs, and increases the number, severity and duration of infections. Antimicrobial use is a major cause of antimicrobial resistance. It is estimated that, in the United States, the amount of antimicrobials administered to food animals is comparable to that used in humans.
These antimicrobials are utilized largely to promote growth and prevent disease, thereby reducing production costs. A substantial amount of them are sold over-the-counter and do not require a veterinarian's prescription.
Most food animals in the US are exposed to antimicrobials in feed, water, or by injection at some point during their lives. Fecal waste from food animals treated with antimicrobials, which is often composted and spread as fertilizer, is implicated in environmental contamination with resistant bacteria.
Several lines of evidence may link antimicrobial use in food animal production to resistant infections in humans. Most antimicrobials used in food animal production are the same as, or closely related to, drugs used in human medicine.
Current antimicrobial use policy for animals in the US differs from policy enacted in the European Union, which has banned the use of some antimicrobials for growth promotion on the farm.
Also of concern is the farm use of antimicrobials of critical importance in human medicine, such as fluoroquinolones and third or higher generation cephalosporins Once the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in a population reaches a certain level, reversal of the problem becomes extremely difficult.
Trends showed a decrease in antimicrobial consumption per kilogram of pig produced from along with an improvement in overall swine productivity. These findings provide the best evidence supporting a ban on the use of antimicrobial growth promoters.
Ecological and Human Health Effects contains scientific evidence meant to inform the policy debate surrounding the use of antibiotics in food animal production.An antibiotic should be selectively toxic to pathogenic microorganisms, should not incite an allergic response in the body, should not upset the normal microbial population of various body sites, and should not foster the development of drug resistance.
Penicillin. Some words are specific enough, but they are so overused they are just plain boring. While it would be awkward to avoid these words all the time, you should take care to substitute more interesting words whenever appropriate.
This kind of research can help prevent the misuse and overuse of antibiotics. “Treating infections with antibiotics is something we want to preserve for generations to come, so we shouldn’t misuse them,” says Dr.
Julie Segre, a senior investigator at NIH. Antibiotic resistance is a global problem. Here's why your doctor won't give you antibiotics and why antibiotics should not be overused.
It is estimated that over one-half of the antibiotics in the U.S. are used in food animal production.
The overuse of antimicrobials in food animal production is an under-appreciated problem. In both human and veterinary medicine, the risk of developing resistance rises each time bacteria are exposed. Thesis Statement for Animal Testing.
There are many instances where lifesaving drugs were invented through experiments that were run on animals, therefore, animal testing should not be shunned as animal testing can open doors to many future cures and treatments.