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Design, components, and operation[ edit ] Operation and layout[ edit ] Escalators typically rise at an angle of about 30 degrees from the ground. Most modern escalators have single-piece aluminum or stainless steel steps that move on a system of tracks in a continuous loop.
This helps riders steady themselves, especially when stepping onto the moving stairs. Occasionally a handrail moves at a slightly different speed from the steps, causing it to "creep" slowly forward or backward relative to the steps; it is only slippage and normal wear that causes such losses of synchronicity, and is not by design.
In some setups, the direction is controlled by whoever arrives first. Physical factors such as the distance to be spanned determine the length and pitch of the escalator, while factors such as the infrastructure's ability to provide support and power must be considered.
Temporal traffic patterns must be anticipated. Some escalators need only to move people from one floor to another, but others may have specific requirements, such as funneling visitors towards exits or exhibits. The visibility and accessibility of the escalator to traffic is relevant.
Designers need to account for the projected traffic volumes. For example, a single-width escalator traveling at about 0.
The carrying capacity of an escalator system is typically matched to the expected peak traffic demand. For example, escalators at transit stations must be designed to cater for the peak traffic flow discharged from a train, without excessive bunching at the escalator entrance.
In elevator pitch examples business plans regard, escalators help manage the flow of people.
For example, at many airports an unpaired escalator delivers passengers to an exit, with no means for anyone entering at the exit to access the concourse.
Escalators are often built next to or around staircases that allow alternative travel between the same two floors. Elevators are necessary for disability access to floors serviced by escalators.
Landing platforms[ edit ] Landing platforms are the two platforms at the two ends that house the curved sections of the tracks, as well as the gears and motors that drive the stairs.
The top platform usually contains the motor assembly and the main drive gear, while the bottom holds the step return idler sprockets. Each platform also has a floor and a comb plate.
The floor plate provides a place for the passengers to stand before they step onto the moving stairs, flush with the rest of the floor and usually hinged to allow easy maintenance access, while the comb plate lies between the stationary floor plate and the moving step, so named for the cleats on its edge which mesh with the matching cleats on each step and resemble a comb.
The interlocking cleats help to minimize the gap between the stairs and landing, preventing objects or persons from becoming caught in it. Truss[ edit ] The truss is the hollow metal structure that bridges the lower and upper landings, composed of two side sections joined together with cross braces across the bottom and just below the top.
The ends of the truss are attached to the top and bottom landing platforms via steel or concrete supports. It carries all the straight track sections connecting the upper and lower sections. Balustrade[ edit ] Made of either metal, sandwich panelor glass, the balustrade supports the handrails of the escalator.
It also provides additional protection for the handrail and passengers. Some escalators have direction arrows on the ends of the balustrade.
Moving walkways often use balustrades in the same way. Tracks[ edit ] The track system is built into the truss to guide the step chain, which continuously pulls the steps from the bottom platform and back to the top in an endless loop. One track guides the front wheels of the steps called the step-wheel track and another guides the back wheels of the steps called the trailer-wheel track.
The relative positions of these tracks cause the steps to form a staircase as they move out from under the comb plate. Along the straight section of the truss the tracks are at their maximum distance apart. This configuration forces the back of one step to be at a degree angle relative to the step behind it.
This right angle forces the steps into a shape resembling a staircase. At the top and bottom of the escalator, the two tracks converge so that the front and back wheels of the steps are almost in a straight line.
This causes the stairs to lay in a flat sheetlike arrangement, one after another, so they can easily travel around the bend in the curved section of track. The tracks carry the steps down along the underside of the truss until they reach the bottom landing, where they pass through another curved section of track before exiting the bottom landing.
At this point, the tracks separate and the steps once again assume a staircase configuration. This cycle is repeated continually as the steps are pulled from bottom to top and back to the bottom again. Steps[ edit ] The steps themselves are solid, one piece, die-cast aluminum or steel.
Yellow demarcation lines are sometimes added to indicate their edges. In most escalator models manufactured afterboth the riser and the tread of each step is cleated given a ribbed appearance with comb-like protrusions that mesh with the comb plates on the top and bottom platforms and the succeeding steps in the chain.
Seeberger escalators featured flat treads and smooth risers; other escalator models have cleated treads and smooth risers.
The steps are linked by a continuous metal chain that forms a closed loop.Marketing ideas, sales strategies, and customer service tips for small business. Get strategies that work to find customers, increase sales, beat the competition.
In the case of event plan, for example, a structure or form somewhat similar to a project plan is made. In any case at all, business plans or general plans always aim to define what the subject of the plan is about, steps in getting to that goal, and action or emergency plans or contingency plans in worst case scenarios of something going terribly wrong.
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Business Plan (Elevator Pitch) What is Your Business? What is your product, service, concept, key technology? The Team Example: $, per month Marketing Concept How are you going business plan, elevator pitch.