Classification[ edit ] At high doses, dextromethorphan is classified as a dissociative general anesthetic and hallucinogen, similar to the controlled substances ketamine and phencyclidine PCP.
See commentary " DNA vaccines: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
The abuse of alcohol and illicit and prescription drugs continues to be a major health problem internationally. It is estimated that alcohol abuse results in 2. In addition to causing death, substance abuse is also responsible for significant morbidity and the treatment of drug addiction creates a tremendous burden on society.
Existing studies have found a high correlation between adolescent abuse and becoming a problem drug user in adulthood 2 ; therefore, it can be inferred that many problem drug users start abusing drugs at an early age. Additionally, accidental and intentional fatalities that are associated with drug and alcohol use represent one of the leading preventable causes of death for the 15 to year-old population.
Alcohol and other drug use in the adolescent population carries a high risk for school underachievement, delinquency, teenage pregnancy, and depression 2.
Preventative science postulates that negative health outcomes, including those resulting from substance abuse, can be prevented by reducing risk factors and enhancing protective factors 3. The general framework used in this article is based on research presented by the National Institute of Drug Abuse NIDA and emphasizes the strategy of targeting modifiable risk factors and enhancing protective factors through family, school and community prevention programmes.
Identify risk factors Prevention of substance abuse among adolescents requires awareness of characteristics that place youth at risk and targeting risk factors that are modifiable. Many studies have attempted to identify risk factors associated with adolescent drug and alcohol usage.
A retrospective study by Dube et al 5 measured correlations between the number of adverse childhood experiences ACEs and future substance abuse behaviour.
Adverse childhood events included abuse physical, emotional or sexualneglect physical or emotional ; growing up with household substance abuse, criminality of household members, mental illness among household members, and parental discord and illicit drug use.
The study specifically compared the number of ACEs resulting in a greater likelihood of drug use initiation under 14 yr of age and also compared the number of ACEs associated with increased risk of developing addiction.
The study demonstrated that each additional ACE increased the likelihood for drug use under 14 yr of age by two to fourfold and raised the risk of later addiction by five times. People with five or more ACEs were seven to ten times more likely to report illicit drug use than those with none 5.
Hawkins et al 3 also reviewed many studies that attempted to identify risk factors for adolescent drug abuse. Of the societal risk factors, the following were identified: Interestingly, socio-economic status did not seem to correlate with increased risk of drug abuse among adolescents; it was only in cases of extreme poverty in conjunction with childhood behavioural problems where increased risk was observed.
Being aware of these risk factors can assist families, health professionals, schools and other community workers with identifying at risk youth and aid in reducing or eliminating risk factors through prevention and treatment programmes. Prevention programmes Botvin et al 6 cited several key factors required in prevention programmes to make them effective.
These factors include a need to address multiple risk and protective factors, provide developmentally appropriate information relative to the target age group, include material to help young people recognize and resist pressures to engage in drug use, include comprehensive personal and social skills training to build resistance, deliver information through interactive methods and cultural sensitivity that includes relevant language and audiovisual content familiar to the target audience 6.
Successful prevention programmes should incorporate all of these characteristics and can then be provided through the family, school, community or healthcare community.
The NIDA Report 4 emphasizes both the role of family and community prevention programmes as vital to deterring child and adolescent substance abuse.
Their findings are summarized below: The NIDA Report emphasizes strengthening protective factors through the family, including increasing family bonding and using appropriate discipline.Since Rational Recovery entered public consciousness, I have had the privilege of appearing on a good number – actually hundreds – of TV and radio benjaminpohle.com were tiresome affairs hosted by steppers, others were single-station shows, sometimes at late hours when most listeners were in dreamland, but some talkshows were actually stimulating interviews with hosts who could understand.
This free Health essay on Essay: substance abuse among adolescents is perfect for Health students to use as an example. This free Health essay on Essay: substance abuse among adolescents is perfect for Health students to use as an example. This assignment discussed in the literature review what the effects of drug abuse are on the .
Amphetamine is a powerful stimulator of the central nervous system. It is used to treat some medical conditions, but it is also highly addictive, with a history of abuse. Adolescent Drug Abuse Brandon Walker HUM/ February 3, Danielle Porter Adolescent Drug Abuse Adolescent drug abuse in America and the World is a huge problem, and that is exactly how I view it, a problem.
Teenagers are getting victim of drug abuse globally. According to Hanson, Venturelli & Fleckenstein, () the current illegal drug use in United states were: % in the West, % in the Northeast, % in the South and % in the Midwest.
Essay Adolescent Drug Abuse and its Effects - A teenager is likely to experiment with drugs and alcohol, especially during high school. Some .